All posts by Andrew Leonard

Terrarium/Vivarium ferns

Below is a list of Companies that sell ferns suitable for Terrariums and Vivariums

Dartfrog
Bens Jungle
Araflora
Carnivors and More
Terra Erfordia
Monde des fougeres

Dartfrog is the only company based in the UK, the others are all in Germany, Holland or France
Some sell a number of Selaginella species (once classified together with ferns) as well

Information supplied by Richard Hayward

Buriton January 2021

Today I went for my first serious walk in months around Buriton
This particular place is very good for Asplenium scolopendrium, which looks at its most spectacular when all the other vegetation around it has died down

Also in this area is one patch of Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. This fern is common growing in walls in Hampshire but is rare growing in the ground. It also looks its best in winter

Sowing Spores – the Munyard method

This post is about how I sow the spores I have received from the BPS Spore Exchange using a method decribed to me by Steve Munyard
To this end I bought 50 small square pots from ebay . They are rugged and microwave proof

I fill 20 of these with cheap compost from Wilkinsons and place them in a large propagator
I fill the propagator with water to about 1cm
I replace the lid and and leave for 24 hours for the compost to become fully wet

After 24 hours I put each pot singly into my (dirty) microwave and cook on full power for 2 minutes
I take the pot out and cover with cardboard and replace in the propagator
Again I replace the lid and leave for 24 hours to cool down

I sort out my spores and create labels using the Dymo label printer

The spore packets that arrive from the BPS are beautifully wrapped in aluminium foil
I unpack them carefully using a scalpel

Eventually you will find the spores inside

I keep the propagator in my conservatory and I take one pot, one at time, into the kitchen where I unwrap a spore package and place it carefully into the pot and then replace the cardboard and replace it in the propagator

Eventually the propgator has all 20 pots and the lid is replaced

Both the cardboard and the aluminium can be removed in 24-48 hours

Steve tells me that the only additional thing he does is to have artificial LED light on top of the propagator as this seems to speed things up. The lights are on for 10 to 12 hours a day
My propogator is in my conservatory which has quite a lot of light

Ferns of Europe

This table shows all the countries in Europe (and surrounding area)
It is sorted by default in the order of the number of ferns in each country but it can be sorted in any order you like by clciking on the title of the column you are interested in
The data for the fern count comes from Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; www.worldplants.de

CountryFern CountArea km2Ferns per km2
Italy1182941400.000401
France1175475570.000214
Spain1064988000.000213
Turkey987696300.000127
Germany843485600.000241
Croatia80559600.001430
United_Kingdom792419300.000327
Switzerland77395160.001949
Georgia761539090.000494
Austria75824090.000910
Russia74163768700.000005
Norway713652680.000194
Czechia71788660.000900
Slovakia68480880.001414
Slovenia68201400.003376
Greece671289000.000520
Poland663062300.000216
Morocco644463000.000143
Sweden634103400.000154
Montenegro62134500.004610
Portugal61915900.000666
Romania612301700.000265
Iran5916285500.000036
Bulgaria581085600.000534
Ireland58688900.000842
Kazhakstan5827250000.000021
Serbia58874600.000663
Ukraine585793200.000100
Finland573038900.000188
North_Macedonia57252200.002260
Azerbaijan56826580.000677
Hungary56905300.000619
Belgium55302800.001816
Albania54274000.001971
Algeria5323817400.000022
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina53511970.001035
Estonia48423900.001132
Denmark47424300.001108
Armenia44284700.001545
Latvia44622000.000707
Netherlands44337200.001305
Belarus432029100.000212
Tunisia391553600.000251
Lithuania37626740.000590
Iceland361002500.000359
Lebanon32102300.003128
Malta263200.081250
Saudi_Arabia2621496900.000012
Cyprus2392400.002489
Turkmenistan194699300.000040
Uzbekistan194489780.000042
Iraq184343200.000041
Israel18221450.000813
Syria161836300.000087
Luxembourg625860.002320
Jordan5887800.000056
Liechtenstein31600.018750
Moldova3328500.000091
Monaco02020.000000
San Marino061.20.000000
Kosovo0108870.000000

Saba

Saba is number 1 in the ferniest places in the World

Saba, a Caribbean island in the Lesser Antilles chain, is a special municipality of the Netherlands. Measuring just 13 square kilometers, it consists essentially of the top of the dormant Mount Scenery volcano (887 m).
Additions to the Fern Flora of Saba, Netherlands Antilles, DAVID B. LELLINGER, American Fern Journal 92(2):93-96 (2002)
There is tourist information here
There is information on accomodation here

American Samoa

American Samoa is at No 15 in the ferniest places in the World
It also has a large number of ferns (152)
There is more information about the botany of these islands here, including 2 useful reports by Dr. W. Arthur Whistler:
Technical Report 83: botanical inventory of the proposed Ta’u unit of the national park of American Samoa; February 1992
Technical report 87: botanical inventory of the proposed Tutuila and Ofu units of the national park of American Samoa; April 1994
The following maps are taken from Technical Report 83

This table was extracted from the website

Scientific NameAbundance
Acrostichum aureumCommon
Adiantum pedatumRare
Adiantum philippenseUncommon
Angiopteris evectaCommon
Angiopteris opacaOccasional
Antrophyum alatumOccasional
Antrophyum plantagineumOccasional
Arachniodes aristataUncommon
Arthropteris repensCommon
Asplenium australasicumCommon
Asplenium cuneatumOccasional
Asplenium feejeenseOccasional
Asplenium horridumUncommon
Asplenium insiticiumUncommon
Asplenium laserpitiifoliumOccasional
Asplenium marattioidesOccasional
Asplenium multifidumOccasional
Asplenium nidusCommon
Asplenium polyodonCommon
Asplenium powelliiUncommon
Asplenium tenerumUncommon
Asplenium unilateraleRare
Bolbitis palustrisOccasional
Calymmodon latealatusRare
Christella dentataUncommon
Christella harveyiCommon
Christella pacificaUncommon
Christella parasiticaOccasional
Christella subjunctaUncommon
Coryphopteris sp.Common
Ctenitis samoensisRare
Ctenopteris blechnoidesOccasional
Ctenopteris contiguaUncommon
Ctenopteris seemanniiOccasional
Ctenopteris tenuisectaUncommon
CyatheaCommon
Cyathea decurrensCommon
Cyathea lunulataCommon
Cyathea truncataCommon
Cyathea vaupeliiOccasional
Cyclosorus interruptusAbundant
Davallia epiphyllaCommon
Davallia graeffeiUncommon
Davallia heterophyllaOccasional
Davallia plumosaUncommon
Davallia repensUncommon
Davallia sessilifoliaUncommon
Davallia solida var. solidaCommon
Dennstaedtia sp.
Dicranopteris linearisOccasional
Diplazium bulbiferumUncommon
Diplazium dilatatumUncommon
Diplazium harpeodesUncommon
Diplazium proliferumUncommon
Dipteris conjugataAbundant
Dryopteris arborescensOccasional
Elaphoglossum feejeenseUncommon
Elaphoglossum reineckeiOccasional
Grammitis conformisUncommon
Grammitis hookeri = Polypodium hookeriUncommon
Haplopteris elongataOccasional
Haplopteris scolopendrinaUncommon
Histiopteris incisaCommon
Humata heterophyllaCommon
Humata polypodioidesUncommon
Humata serrataUncommon
Hypolepis aspidioidesOccasional
Hypolepis tenuifoliaUncommon
Lastreopsis davallioidesOccasional
Lindsaea ensifolia ssp. agatiiOccasional
Lindsaea harveyiUncommon
Lindsaea pacificaOccasional
Lindsaea pulchraUncommon
Lindsaea repensUncommon
Lindsaea tetragonaRare
Lomagramma cordipinnaCommon
Lunathyrium japonicumUncommon
Lycopodium carinatumUncommon
Lycopodium cernum = Lycopodiella cernaUncommon
Lycopodium phlegmaria = Huperzia manniiUncommon
Lycopodium squarrosumUncommon
Lycopodium sp.Uncommon
Macrothelypteris polypodioidesOccasional
Macrothelypteris torresianaOccasional
Marattia smithiiUncommon
Microlepia speluncaeOccasional
Microsorium sylvaticumOccasional
Nephrolepis biserrataCommon
Nephrolepis hirsutulaCommon
Oleandra neriiformisOccasional
Ophioglossum pendulumUncommon
Ophioglossum reticulatumRare
Ophioglossum reticulatum var. pacificaUncommon
Orthiopteris tenuisRare
Phymatosaurus grossus = P. scolopendriaCommon
Phymatosaurus nigrescensOccasional
Pityrogramma brackenridgeiUncommon
Pleocnemia leuzeanaOccasional
Plesioneuron attenuatumOccasional
PneumatopterisUncommon
Pneumatopteris bryaniiUncommon
Pneumatopteris costataRare
Pneumatopteris glanduliferaOccasional
Pneumatopteris magnificaCommon
Pneumatopteris rodigesianaUncommon
Pneumatopteris transversariaUncommon
Polypodium nigrescensUncommon
Polypodium subauriculatumUncommon
Polystichum aculeatumRare
Psilotum complanatumUncommon
Pteris comansOccasional
Pteris ensiformisOccasional
Pteris pacificaOccasional
Pteris tripartitaOccasional
Pteris vaupeliiUncommon
Pyrrosia adnascensCommon
Pyrrosia lanceolataCommon
Selaginella laxaUncommon
Selaginella whitmeeiOccasional
Sphaerostephanos invisusOccasional
Sphaerostephanos reineckeiUncommon
Sphaerostephanos unitusUncommon
Sphenomeris chinensisUncommon
Tectaria chrysotrichaUncommon
Tectaria decurrensOccasional
Tectaria setchelliiOccasional
Tectaria stearnsiiCommon
Vaginularia angustissimaOccasional
Vittaria elongata = Haplopteris elongataOccasional
Vittaria scolopendrinaUncommon

The ferniest places in the world

This is a table based on the work of Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; last update Dec. 8, 2020. – www.worldplants.de
The regions and the fern count (including endemics) come from his website. The area information (km2) comes from a variety of sources
The table is sorted by default by the largest value for ferns/km2 but you can resort the table by clicking on any column header

Country Ferns & Lycophytes EndemicsSize (km2)ferns/km2
Saba560134.3076923
Lord Howe Isl.6020154.1237113
Annobon Isl.472172.7647059
Isla del Coco (Cocos Isl.)5717242.4234694
Gibraltar11061.8333333
Kazan-Retto (Volcano Isl., Iwo-jima)552331.6897081
St. Eustatius320211.5238095
Norfolk Isl. (incl. Philip Isl.)476351.3583815
Montserrat11911021.1666667
Kermadec Isl.394341.1607143
Antipodes Isl.221211.0476190
Tokelau Isl. (incl. Swains Isl.)90100.9000000
Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Isl.)718790.8943192
Isla Malpelo1010.8333333
American Samoa15201990.7638191
Ilha da Trindade109140.7407407
Islas Selvagens (Salvajes Isl.)2030.7326007
Rotuma Isl.330470.7021277
Austral Isl. (Tubuai Isl., incl. Rapa Isl.)102201520.6710526
Principe Isl.7821360.5735294
St. Kitts & Nevis13122610.5019157
Juan Fernandez Isl.48211000.4819277
Grenada15413440.4476744
St. Vincent and the Grenadines16903890.4344473
Pitcairn Isl. (incl. Oeno Atoll)204470.4255319
St. Maarten (St. Martin)140340.4117647
St. Barthelemy (St. Barts)90250.3600000
Bermuda194540.3518519
Cook Isl. (incl. Rarotonga Isl.)6762370.2830587
Palau Isl. (Republic of Palau, Western Carolines)122124590.2657952
Dominica19617510.2609854
Rodrigues Isl.2741080.2500000
Singapore17107100.2408451
St. Helena29141220.2382909
Tuvalu (Ellice Isl.)60260.2307692
Henderson Isl. (incl. Ducie Atoll)80370.2144772
Wallis & Futuna3001420.2106742
Federal States of Micronesia (Central and Eastern Carolines: Truk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae)143137020.2037037
Christmas Isl. (Austr.)2721350.2000000
Ile Amsterdam & St. Paul Isl.111550.2000000
South China Sea Isl.30150.2000000
Martinique22421,1280.1985816
St. Lucia12116160.1964286
Tristan da Cunha (incl. Gough Island, Nightingale Isl., Inaccessible Island)40142070.1932367
Seychelles85124520.1880531
Campbell Isl.2001130.1774623
Guadeloupe (incl. Marie Galante, La Désirade, Les Saintes)28761,6280.1762899
Banaba (Ocean Isl., Kiribati p. p.)1060.1666667
St. Pierre & Miquelon4002420.1652893
Ascension Isl.155910.1648352
Virgin Islands (U.S. Virgin Islands & British Virgin Islands)5403460.1558891
Sao Tomé14789640.1524896
Santa Cruz Isl. (Vanikoro, etc.)3822500.1520000
Nauru30210.1428571
Gambier Isl. (incl. Mangareva Isl.)90690.1304537
Society Isl. (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Huahine, Bora Bora, Makatea, etc.)197521,5900.1238994
Tonga9137470.1218206
Northern Marianas5814770.1215933
San Andres y Providencia60530.1142857
Guam6005490.1092896
Marquesas Isl.114331,0490.1086749
Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo)21322,0170.1056024
Chatham Isl.10119660.1045549
Niue Isl.2702620.1032505
La Reunion248192,5120.0987261
Mauritius (incl. Tromelin Isl.)201142,0400.0985294
Auckland Isl.4204430.0949153
Comores (incl. Mayotte)16391,8620.0875403
Malta2603160.0822785
[Western] Samoa226202,8420.0795215
Easter Island (Rapa Nui)1351640.0794621
Madeira6068010.0749064
Antigua and Barbuda (incl. Redonda Isl.)3304420.0746606
Cayman Isl.1902590.0733591
Barbados3004300.0697674
Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor, Alor, Wetar) [incl. East Timor]365125,4400.0670956
Ryukyu Isl. (Nansei Shoto) (incl. Osumi Isl., Tokara Isl., Amami Isl., Okinawa Isl., Daito Isl., Sakishima Isl.)311124,6420.0669970
Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives)20330.0613121
Trinidad & Tobago291105,1300.0567251
Marshall Isl.1001810.0551572
Nicobar Isl.9421,8410.0510592
Jamaica5566210,9910.0505868
Macquarie Isl.601280.0468750
British Channel Isl.801850.0432432
Puerto Rico (incl. Mona Isl., Desecheo Isl., Culebra Isl., Vieques Isl.)360228,8700.0405862
Agalega Isl.10250.0400000
Andorra1814680.0384615
Iles Glorieuses (Iles Eparses p. p.)501650.0303030
Costa Rica (except Isla del Coco)1,14310151,1000.0223679
Azores5152,3460.0217391
Marion & Prince Edward Isl.713350.0208955
Taiwan (incl. Lan Yu Isl.)7388536,1930.0203907
Iles Crozet703520.0198864
Liechtenstein301600.0187500
El Salvador371321,0410.0176322
Fiji3085518,2720.0168564
Revillagigedo Isl. (incl. Socorro Isl.)1711,0640.0159827
Palawan (incl. Busuanga, Culion)232514,6500.0158362
Curacao704440.0157658
Solomon Isl. (incl. Bougainville, excl. Santa Cruz Isl.)4443428,4000.0156338
Vanuatu1901512,1890.0155878
New Caledonia (incl. Ile des Pins, Loyalty Isl., Ile Art)28211518,5750.0151817
Galapagos Isl.118118,0100.0147316
Faeroe Isl.2001,3990.0142959
Gilbert Islands (Kiribati p. p.)402810.0142298
Bhutan534138,3940.0139084
Maldives403000.0133333
Panama9474475,4170.0125569
Andaman Isl.7916,4080.0123283
Belize261222,9660.0113646
Bonaire302940.0102041
Tuamotu Arch. (excl. Gambier Isl.)908850.0101695
Moluccas [Maluku] (Tanimbar, Kei, Aru, Banda, Ambon, Seram, Buru, Obi, Bacan, Halmaheira, Ternate, Tidore, Morotai, Talaud, Sulu Arch.)6769174,5050.0090732
Cape Verde Isl.3514,0330.0086784
Jan Mayen Isl.303770.0079576
Line Isl. (Kiribati p. p., incl. Christmas Isl. = Kiritimati)405030.0079475
Hispaniola (Dominican Republic & Haiti)5906476,1920.0077436
Corsica6708,7220.0076817
Turks & Caicos Isl.709480.0073840
Soqotra (incl. Abd-al-Kuri Isl., Samha Isl.)2703,7960.0071128
Canary Isl.5347,4930.0070733
Rwanda175326,3380.0066444
Guatemala7184108,8890.0065939
Burundi181227,8340.0065028
Eswatini [Swaziland]107117,3640.0061622
Baleares3004,9920.0060096
Hawaii (incl. Johnston Atoll, Midway Isl.)16912028,3110.0059694
Honduras6464112,4920.0057426
Ecuador1,476182276,8410.0053316
Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Admirality Isl., Manus Isl., Umboi, etc.)2591649,7000.0052113
peninsular Malaysia (incl. Langkawi Isl.)68746132,2650.0051941
Sri Lanka3323765,6100.0050602
Cuba55091109,8840.0050053
Isla Guadalupe801,6280.0049140
Equatorial Guinea (mainland [Rio Muni], excluding islands)136128,0510.0048483
Nicaragua6083130,3730.0046635
Montenegro62013,8120.0044889
Sulawesi (Celebes) (incl. Selayar, Banggai, Sangihe, Kabaena)77886174,6000.0044559
Java (incl. Madura Isl., Kangean Arch., Bawean)54443128,2970.0042402
Crete3518,3360.0041987
French Guiana3301283,5340.0039505
Bahrain307650.0039216
Nepal5584147,1810.0037913
Slovenia68020,2730.0033542
Brunei1845,7650.0031223
Lebanon32110,4520.0030616
Philippines (excl. Palawan, Sulu Arch.)1,017245342,3530.0029706
Bahamas41113,9430.0029405
Lesotho87030,3550.0028661
South Korea (incl. Cheju Do Isl.)2749100,2100.0027343
Vietnam85160331,2120.0025694
Cyprus2309,2510.0024862
Guyana (British Guyana)52526214,9690.0024422
Luxembourg602,5860.0023202
Northern Macedonia57125,7130.0022168
South Georgia Isl.803,9030.0020497
Sardinia48024,0900.0019925
Malawi2351118,4840.0019834
Surinam3214163,8210.0019595
Sierra Leone138171,7400.0019236
Sicily (incl. Isole Pelagie)49025,7110.0019058
Albania54028,7480.0018784
Mozambique Channel Isl. (Iles Eparses p. p., incl. Ile Europa, Juan de Nova Isl.)301,6000.0018750
Switzerland77041,2840.0018651
Belgium55030,5280.0018016
Japan (incl. Izu Isl., Yakushima Isl., excl. Ryukyu Isl. and Bonin Isl.)672105377,9300.0017781
Falkland Isl.21112,1730.0017251
Liberia1923111,3690.0017240
New Guinea (Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea, incl. d'Entrecasteaux Isl., Goodenough Isl., Louisiade Arch., Rennell, Yapen, Biak, Waigeu Islands etc.)1,287599785,7530.0016379
Sumatera (incl. Mentawai, Enggano, Nias, Simeulue, Lingga Arch., Krakatau, Bangka, Belitung, Batu)734135473,4810.0015502
Colombia1,6971891,141,7480.0014863
Armenia44029,7430.0014793
Bangladesh2173147,5700.0014705
Thailand73629513,1200.0014344
Croatia80156,5940.0014136
Eastern Aegean Islands (Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodos, Kos, Symi, Samos, Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Limnos etc.)33023,7890.0013872
Slovakia68049,0370.0013867
Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita)1,236138916,4450.0013487
Crimea36027,0000.0013333
Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan, incl. Natuna Isl., Riouw Arch., excl. Brunei)989264743,3300.0013305
Madagascar669327587,0410.0011396
Gambia12010,6890.0011226
Uganda2700241,5500.0011178
Iles Kerguélen807,2150.0011088
Myanmar7449676,5780.0010997
Denmark47043,0940.0010906
Gruziya [Georgia - Caucasus] (incl. Abkhazia, Adzharia)76069,7000.0010904
Cambodia1960181,0350.0010827
Laos2553236,8000.0010769
Bolivia1,1801391,098,5810.0010741
Estonia48045,2270.0010613
European Turkey25023,7640.0010520
Netherlands44041,8500.0010514
Togo59056,7850.0010390
Bosnia & Hercegovina53051,2090.0010350
Peru1,2481441,285,2160.0009710
Czech Republic71078,8650.0009003
Austria75083,8710.0008942
Israel + Palestine18020,7700.0008666
North Korea1031120,5380.0008545
Ireland (incl. Northern Ireland)58070,2730.0008254
New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl., Three Kings Isl., Snares Isl., excl. remote islands)19031270,4670.0007025
Zimbabwe2722390,7570.0006961
Guinea [Conakry]1684245,8570.0006833
Latvia44064,5590.0006815
Portugal (excl. Azores, Madeira)61092,0900.0006624
Ghana1582238,5330.0006624
Serbia58088,3610.0006564
Azerbaijan (incl. Talysh, incl. Nachichevan)56186,6000.0006467
Gabon1732267,6680.0006463
Congo [Brazzaville]2113342,0000.0006170
Guinea-Bissau22036,1250.0006090
Hungary56093,0280.0006020
Paraguay2424406,7520.0005950
Cameroon2766475,4420.0005805
Uruguay1031181,0340.0005690
Lithuania37065,3000.0005666
Djibouti13023,2000.0005603
Mexico1,0421941,964,3750.0005304
Bulgaria580110,8790.0005231
Greece (incl. Kikladhes, excl. Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos and E-Aegaean)671131,9900.0005076
Ivory Coast1571322,4630.0004869
Kenya2794580,3670.0004807
Benin500112,6220.0004440
Tanzania (incl. Pemba Isl., Zanzibar)40123945,0870.0004243
Tibet [Xizang]488131,228,0000.0003974
Italy (incl. Elba Isl., Capri Isl.)1183301,3360.0003916
Iceland361103,0000.0003495
Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Isle of Man, Orkney Isl., Shetland Isl., but excl. Channel Isl. and Northern Ireland)791242,9000.0003252
India (incl. Assam, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Chumbi, Jammu & Kashmir, excl. Andaman and Nicobar Isl., excl. Lakshadweep Isl.)1,029533,287,5900.0003130
Mozambique2250801,5900.0002807
Romania610238,3910.0002559
Tunisia390163,6100.0002384
Eritrea281117,6000.0002381
Germany840357,1140.0002352
Zambia1761752,6120.0002339
Senegal440196,7220.0002237
South Africa270321,221,0370.0002211
Norway710323,8020.0002193
France (mainland, excl. Corsica)1171551,6950.0002121
Poland660312,6790.0002111
Spain (excl. Baleares)1062505,9920.0002095
Nigeria1921923,7680.0002078
Belarus430207,6000.0002071
Tajikistan281143,1000.0001957
China (incl. Hongkong, Macao and Hainan; excl. Tibet, Taiwan and South China Sea Isl.)1,8885939,706,9610.0001945
Central African Republic1151622,9840.0001846
Finland570338,4240.0001684
Angola (excl. Cabinda)20311,246,7000.0001628
Northern Caucasus (incl. Chechnya, Daghestan, etc.)710440,0000.0001614
Ethiopia17851,104,3000.0001612
Chile (excl. Juan Fdz. Isl.)12016756,1020.0001587
Brazil1,3494888,515,7670.0001584
Pakistan1390881,9120.0001576
Morocco641446,5500.0001433
D.R. Congo (Zaire)332122,344,8580.0001416
Sweden630450,2950.0001399
Cabinda107,2900.0001372
Argentina370192,780,4000.0001331
Kyrgyzstan (Kirgisia)260199,9510.0001300
Turkey (excl. European Turkey)986783,5620.0001251
Sinai peninsula7060,0000.0001167
Svalbard (incl. Bjornoya)6061,0220.0000983
Ukraine (excl. Crimea)580603,5000.0000961
Sudan17001,886,0680.0000901
Moldova (incl. Transnistria)3033,8460.0000886
Syria160185,1800.0000864
Qatar1011,5860.0000863
Burkina Faso231272,9670.0000843
Botswana490582,0000.0000842
Yemen (excl. Soqotra)420527,9680.0000796
Afghanistan480652,2300.0000736
Namibia (incl. Caprivi Strip)601825,6150.0000727
Somalia390637,6570.0000612
Australia (incl. Tasmania, excl. other islands)4541537,692,0240.0000590
Oman180309,5000.0000582
Kuwait1017,8180.0000561
Jordania5089,3420.0000560
Alaska (incl. Aleutes)8511,718,0000.0000495
USA (Lower 48 States)436749,372,6100.0000465
Uzbekistan190447,4000.0000425
Iraq180438,3170.0000411
Turkmenistan190488,1000.0000389
Iran5911,648,1950.0000358
Mongolia5001,564,1100.0000320
Mali3801,240,1920.0000306
Chad3601,284,0000.0000280
United Arab Emirates (incl. Dubai, Abu Dhabi)2083,6000.0000239
Algeria5302,381,7410.0000223
Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Amur, Ussuri, Okhotsk, Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Commander Isl., Primorye, Khabarovsk, Magadan)13766,200,0000.0000221
Kazakhstan5802,724,9000.0000213
European Russia (excl. Caucasus, incl. Kaliningrad region, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya)7403,995,2000.0000185
Canada17219,984,6700.0000172
Greenland3702,166,0860.0000171
Chagos Arch. (Diego Garcia)81544,0000.0000147
Saudi Arabia2602,149,6900.0000121
Egypt (excl. Sinai peninsula)1201,002,4500.0000120
Mauritania1101,030,7000.0000107
Niger1201,267,0000.0000095
Libya1601,759,5400.0000091
Siberia (incl. Altay, Sayan, Tuva, Krasnoyarsk, Buryatia, Chita, Transbaicalia, Yakutia, Irkutsk, NE-Siberia)98313,100,0000.0000075
Western Sahara10266,0000.0000038
South Sudan10619,7450.0000016

Gametophytes and Sporophytes

This is a diagramatic representation of a fern gametophyte

This is a gametophyte of Asplenium ceterach

There are 3 young sporophytes growing on gametophytes

This is a gametophyte that has failed to germinate, it has grown quite large

Where to find Ferns

This map is a detail map of the Carribean where there are lots of small islands with lots of ferns

The following table lists the countries sorted by which have the largest ratio of fern species per Km2
This table may be a bit misleading in that the country with the largest number of ferns, China (1888), comes in at position 126
However it might come in useful if you wanted to spend a week looking for ferns
Some of the countries have links to extra information about the ferns of the area
This list only contains data for sovereign countries and thus does not have data for semi-autonomous areas such as Macaronesia

PositionCountryFern CountLand Area (Km2)Ferns/km2
1St. Kitts & Nevis1312600.503846
2Grenada1543400.452941
3Singapore1717000.244285
4St. Lucia1216100.198360
5Seychelles854600.184782
6Sao Tomé1479600.153125
7Tonga917200.126388
8Mauritius201 2,030 0.099014
9Malta263200.081250
10Antigua and Barbuda334400.075000
11Barbados304300.069767
12Trinidad & Tobago291 5,130 0.056725
13Jamaica556 10,830 0.051338
14Andorra184700.038297
15Costa Rica1143 51,060 0.022385
16Haiti590 27,560 0.021407
17Taiwan738 36,193 0.020390
18El Salvador371 20,720 0.017905
19Fiji308 18,270 0.016858
20Solomon Isl.444 27,990 0.015862
21Vanuatu190 12,190 0.015586
22Bhutan534 38,117 0.014009
23Panama947 74,340 0.012738
24Belize261 22,810 0.011442
25Rwanda175 24,670 0.007093
26Burundi181 25,680 0.007048
27Guatemala718 107,160 0.006700
28Eswatini107 17,200 0.006220
29Ecuador1476 248,360 0.005942
30Honduras646 111,890 0.005773
31Sri Lanka332 62,710 0.005294
32Cuba550 106,440 0.005167
33Nicaragua608 120,340 0.005052
34Equatorial Guinea136 28,050 0.004848
35Montenegro62 13,450 0.004609
36Bahamas41 10,010 0.004095
37Dominican Republic196 48,320 0.004056
38Nepal558 143,350 0.003892
39Brunei18 5,270 0.003415
40Philippines1017 298,170 0.003410
41Slovenia68 20,140 0.003376
42Lebanon32 10,230 0.003128
43Lesotho87 30,360 0.002865
44Papua New Guinea1287 452,860 0.002841
45South Korea274 97,230 0.002818
46Vietnam851 310,070 0.002744
47Guyana525 196,850 0.002667
48Malawi235 94,280 0.002492
49Cyprus23 9,240 0.002489
50Northern Macedonia57 25,220 0.002260
51Malaysia687 328,550 0.002091
52Suriname321 156,000 0.002057
53Liberia192 96,320 0.001993
54Albania54 27,400 0.001970
55Switzerland77 39,516 0.001948
56Sierra Leone138 72,180 0.001911
57Japan672 364,555 0.001843
58Belgium55 30,280 0.001816
59Bangladesh217 130,170 0.001667
60Armenia44 28,470 0.001545
61Colombia1697 1,109,500 0.001529
62Thailand736 510,890 0.001440
63Croatia80 55,960 0.001429
64Slovakia68 48,088 0.001414
65Venezuela1236 882,050 0.001401
66Uganda270 199,810 0.001351
67Netherlands44 33,720 0.001304
68Gambia12 10,120 0.001185
69Madagascar669 581,795 0.001149
70Myanmar744 653,290 0.001138
71Estonia48 42,390 0.001132
72Cambodia196 176,520 0.001110
73Denmark47 42,430 0.001107
74Laos255 230,800 0.001104
75Bolivia1180 1,083,300 0.001089
76Togo59 54,390 0.001084
77Bosnia & Hercegovina53 51,000 0.001039
78Peru1248 1,280,000 0.000975
79DR Congo332 341,500 0.000972
80Czech Republic71 77,240 0.000919
81Austria75 82,409 0.000910
82North Korea103 120,410 0.000855
83Ireland58 68,890 0.000841
84Guinea-Bissau22 28,120 0.000782
85New Zealand190 263,310 0.000721
86Latvia44 62,200 0.000707
87Zimbabwe272 386,850 0.000703
88Ghana158 227,540 0.000694
89Guinea168 245,720 0.000683
90Azerbaijan56 82,658 0.000677
91Gabon173 257,670 0.000671
92Portugal61 91,590 0.000666
93Serbia58 87,460 0.000663
94Hungary56 90,530 0.000618
95Congo211 341,500 0.000617
96Paraguay242 397,300 0.000609
97Lithuania37 62,674 0.000590
98Uruguay103 175,020 0.000588
99Cameroon276 472,710 0.000583
100Djibouti13 23,180 0.000560
101Indonesia989 1,811,570 0.000545
102Mexico1042 1,943,950 0.000536
103Bulgaria58 108,560 0.000534
104Greece67 128,900 0.000519
105Cote d Ivoire157 318,000 0.000493
106Kenya279 569,140 0.000490
107Tanzania401 885,800 0.000452
108Benin50 112,760 0.000443
109Italy118 294,140 0.000401
110Iceland36 100,250 0.000359
111India1029 2,973,190 0.000346
112United Kingdom79 241,930 0.000326
113Mozambique225 786,380 0.000286
114Eritrea28 101,000 0.000277
115Romania61 230,170 0.000265
116Tunisia39 155,360 0.000251
117Germany84 348,560 0.000240
118Zambia176 743,390 0.000236
119Senegal44 192,530 0.000228
120South Africa270 1,213,090 0.000222
121Poland66 306,230 0.000215
122France117 547,557 0.000213
123Spain106 498,800 0.000212
124Belarus43 202,910 0.000211
125Nigeria192 910,770 0.000210
126China1888 9,388,211 0.000201
127Tajikistan28 139,960 0.000200
128Norway71 365,268 0.000194
129Finland57 303,890 0.000187
130Central African Republic115 622,980 0.000184
131Pakistan139 770,880 0.000180
132Ethiopia178 1,000,000 0.000178
133Angola203 1,246,700 0.000162
134Brazil1349 8,358,140 0.000161
135Chile120 743,532 0.000161
136Sweden63 410,340 0.000153
137Morocco64 446,300 0.000143
138Kyrgyzstan26 191,800 0.000135
139Argentina370 2,736,690 0.000135
140Turkey98 769,630 0.000127
141Ukraine58 579,320 0.000100
142Sudan170 1,765,048 0.000096
143Syria16 183,630 0.000087
144Botswana49 566,730 0.000086
145Burkina Faso23 273,600 0.000084
146Yemen42 527,970 0.000079
147Afghanistan48 652,860 0.000073
148Namibia60 823,290 0.000072
149Somalia39 627,340 0.000062
150Australia454 7,682,300 0.000059
151Oman18 309,500 0.000058
152United States436 9,147,420 0.000047
153Uzbekistan19 425,400 0.000044
154Iraq18 434,320 0.000041
155Turkmenistan19 469,930 0.000040
156Iran59 1,628,550 0.000036
157Mongolia50 1,553,560 0.000032
158Mali38 1,220,190 0.000031
159Chad36 1,259,200 0.000028
160Algeria53 2,381,740 0.000022
161Kazakhstan58 2,699,700 0.000021
162Canada172 9,093,510 0.000018
163Saudi Arabia26 2,149,690 0.000012
164Egypt12 995,450 0.000012
165Mauritania11 1,030,700 0.000010
166Niger12 1,266,700 0.000009
167Libya16 1,759,540 0.000009
168Russia74 16,376,870 0.000004

Fern count numbers taken from Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; last update Dec. 8, 2020. – www.worldplants.de

Country size data take from worldometers.info