Category Archives: Blogs

Here you will find all the Blogs on the BPS website

Southport Fernery news

Everything is growing very well in the Fernery, thanks to the constant attention from Gary and Sandra, and the heating system not failing last Winter. Michael and I went in on 7th April for the first time since last December, and were quite overwhelmed by the fantastic lush growth all around!

The weeds are growing well too – Gary tackled the south-west corner at the top of the wall by removing all the weeds, and the spent, dusty soil from the pockets. Then new compost and a Woodwardia in the deep pocket, transformation complete! Before and after photos below.

[

We are hoping to re-open the Fernery to the public from 17th May. BPS members – if you are thinking of travelling to see the Fernery, please let me know on President@ebps.org.uk so that we can make sure it is open and there is someone there to greet you.

Spring!

Some better weather this Easter week-end, time to enjoy the spring blossom, and fern croziers beginning to expand. Some of them will need protection if the forecasted frost and snow returns later this week – I will be fleecing the Matteuccia orientalis for certain. Last year the first and second flush of croziers on this plant were frosted off, so I’m pleased it has survived.

Some BPS reminders – voting is open on our Photographic Competition page, and results will be announced at the virtual AGM on April 24th. If you would like to attend the AGM and the talks afterwards, please contact David Hill, Secretary@ebps.org.uk

Hope that we will be able to resume our face-to-face meetings later this year – look forward to seeing you!

Ferns of Europe

This table shows all the countries in Europe (and surrounding area)
It is sorted by default in the order of the number of ferns in each country but it can be sorted in any order you like by clciking on the title of the column you are interested in
The data for the fern count comes from Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; www.worldplants.de

CountryFern CountArea km2Ferns per km2
Italy1182941400.000401
France1175475570.000214
Spain1064988000.000213
Turkey987696300.000127
Germany843485600.000241
Croatia80559600.001430
United_Kingdom792419300.000327
Switzerland77395160.001949
Georgia761539090.000494
Austria75824090.000910
Russia74163768700.000005
Norway713652680.000194
Czechia71788660.000900
Slovakia68480880.001414
Slovenia68201400.003376
Greece671289000.000520
Poland663062300.000216
Morocco644463000.000143
Sweden634103400.000154
Montenegro62134500.004610
Portugal61915900.000666
Romania612301700.000265
Iran5916285500.000036
Bulgaria581085600.000534
Ireland58688900.000842
Kazhakstan5827250000.000021
Serbia58874600.000663
Ukraine585793200.000100
Finland573038900.000188
North_Macedonia57252200.002260
Azerbaijan56826580.000677
Hungary56905300.000619
Belgium55302800.001816
Albania54274000.001971
Algeria5323817400.000022
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina53511970.001035
Estonia48423900.001132
Denmark47424300.001108
Armenia44284700.001545
Latvia44622000.000707
Netherlands44337200.001305
Belarus432029100.000212
Tunisia391553600.000251
Lithuania37626740.000590
Iceland361002500.000359
Lebanon32102300.003128
Malta263200.081250
Saudi_Arabia2621496900.000012
Cyprus2392400.002489
Turkmenistan194699300.000040
Uzbekistan194489780.000042
Iraq184343200.000041
Israel18221450.000813
Syria161836300.000087
Luxembourg625860.002320
Jordan5887800.000056
Liechtenstein31600.018750
Moldova3328500.000091
Monaco02020.000000
San Marino061.20.000000
Kosovo0108870.000000

News from Southport Fernery

Progress has continued at the Fernery, despite the difficulties caused by Covid and lock-down. Sandra and Gary have kept up the watering and weeding, and recently a broken-down planting pocket has been re-built, using lime mortar. Michael has added many more plants to the wall pockets, when regulations permitted him to return to the Fernery. The Cyatheas that were colliding with the roof have been removed, and new tree ferns have put on good growth. The park and BGCA were successful in their bid for the ‘Community Green Flag’ award, at the first attempt – very well done! The park remains open, and a new stumpery is being established not far from the Fernery. The Fernery was briefly open to the public in the Summer with a limit of six people inside at any one time. The doors at the north end have been repaired so that a one-way system can operate – the hope being that the Fernery will be able to open to the public again from Easter.

The Fernery is also home to flowering plants, with orchids, epiphyllums, Christmas cactus, clivias, and passion flowers to name a few. The established ferns are thriving too!

Saba

Saba is number 1 in the ferniest places in the World

Saba, a Caribbean island in the Lesser Antilles chain, is a special municipality of the Netherlands. Measuring just 13 square kilometers, it consists essentially of the top of the dormant Mount Scenery volcano (887 m).
Additions to the Fern Flora of Saba, Netherlands Antilles, DAVID B. LELLINGER, American Fern Journal 92(2):93-96 (2002)
There is tourist information here
There is information on accomodation here

American Samoa

American Samoa is at No 15 in the ferniest places in the World
It also has a large number of ferns (152)
There is more information about the botany of these islands here, including 2 useful reports by Dr. W. Arthur Whistler:
Technical Report 83: botanical inventory of the proposed Ta’u unit of the national park of American Samoa; February 1992
Technical report 87: botanical inventory of the proposed Tutuila and Ofu units of the national park of American Samoa; April 1994
The following maps are taken from Technical Report 83

This table was extracted from the website

Scientific NameAbundance
Acrostichum aureumCommon
Adiantum pedatumRare
Adiantum philippenseUncommon
Angiopteris evectaCommon
Angiopteris opacaOccasional
Antrophyum alatumOccasional
Antrophyum plantagineumOccasional
Arachniodes aristataUncommon
Arthropteris repensCommon
Asplenium australasicumCommon
Asplenium cuneatumOccasional
Asplenium feejeenseOccasional
Asplenium horridumUncommon
Asplenium insiticiumUncommon
Asplenium laserpitiifoliumOccasional
Asplenium marattioidesOccasional
Asplenium multifidumOccasional
Asplenium nidusCommon
Asplenium polyodonCommon
Asplenium powelliiUncommon
Asplenium tenerumUncommon
Asplenium unilateraleRare
Bolbitis palustrisOccasional
Calymmodon latealatusRare
Christella dentataUncommon
Christella harveyiCommon
Christella pacificaUncommon
Christella parasiticaOccasional
Christella subjunctaUncommon
Coryphopteris sp.Common
Ctenitis samoensisRare
Ctenopteris blechnoidesOccasional
Ctenopteris contiguaUncommon
Ctenopteris seemanniiOccasional
Ctenopteris tenuisectaUncommon
CyatheaCommon
Cyathea decurrensCommon
Cyathea lunulataCommon
Cyathea truncataCommon
Cyathea vaupeliiOccasional
Cyclosorus interruptusAbundant
Davallia epiphyllaCommon
Davallia graeffeiUncommon
Davallia heterophyllaOccasional
Davallia plumosaUncommon
Davallia repensUncommon
Davallia sessilifoliaUncommon
Davallia solida var. solidaCommon
Dennstaedtia sp.
Dicranopteris linearisOccasional
Diplazium bulbiferumUncommon
Diplazium dilatatumUncommon
Diplazium harpeodesUncommon
Diplazium proliferumUncommon
Dipteris conjugataAbundant
Dryopteris arborescensOccasional
Elaphoglossum feejeenseUncommon
Elaphoglossum reineckeiOccasional
Grammitis conformisUncommon
Grammitis hookeri = Polypodium hookeriUncommon
Haplopteris elongataOccasional
Haplopteris scolopendrinaUncommon
Histiopteris incisaCommon
Humata heterophyllaCommon
Humata polypodioidesUncommon
Humata serrataUncommon
Hypolepis aspidioidesOccasional
Hypolepis tenuifoliaUncommon
Lastreopsis davallioidesOccasional
Lindsaea ensifolia ssp. agatiiOccasional
Lindsaea harveyiUncommon
Lindsaea pacificaOccasional
Lindsaea pulchraUncommon
Lindsaea repensUncommon
Lindsaea tetragonaRare
Lomagramma cordipinnaCommon
Lunathyrium japonicumUncommon
Lycopodium carinatumUncommon
Lycopodium cernum = Lycopodiella cernaUncommon
Lycopodium phlegmaria = Huperzia manniiUncommon
Lycopodium squarrosumUncommon
Lycopodium sp.Uncommon
Macrothelypteris polypodioidesOccasional
Macrothelypteris torresianaOccasional
Marattia smithiiUncommon
Microlepia speluncaeOccasional
Microsorium sylvaticumOccasional
Nephrolepis biserrataCommon
Nephrolepis hirsutulaCommon
Oleandra neriiformisOccasional
Ophioglossum pendulumUncommon
Ophioglossum reticulatumRare
Ophioglossum reticulatum var. pacificaUncommon
Orthiopteris tenuisRare
Phymatosaurus grossus = P. scolopendriaCommon
Phymatosaurus nigrescensOccasional
Pityrogramma brackenridgeiUncommon
Pleocnemia leuzeanaOccasional
Plesioneuron attenuatumOccasional
PneumatopterisUncommon
Pneumatopteris bryaniiUncommon
Pneumatopteris costataRare
Pneumatopteris glanduliferaOccasional
Pneumatopteris magnificaCommon
Pneumatopteris rodigesianaUncommon
Pneumatopteris transversariaUncommon
Polypodium nigrescensUncommon
Polypodium subauriculatumUncommon
Polystichum aculeatumRare
Psilotum complanatumUncommon
Pteris comansOccasional
Pteris ensiformisOccasional
Pteris pacificaOccasional
Pteris tripartitaOccasional
Pteris vaupeliiUncommon
Pyrrosia adnascensCommon
Pyrrosia lanceolataCommon
Selaginella laxaUncommon
Selaginella whitmeeiOccasional
Sphaerostephanos invisusOccasional
Sphaerostephanos reineckeiUncommon
Sphaerostephanos unitusUncommon
Sphenomeris chinensisUncommon
Tectaria chrysotrichaUncommon
Tectaria decurrensOccasional
Tectaria setchelliiOccasional
Tectaria stearnsiiCommon
Vaginularia angustissimaOccasional
Vittaria elongata = Haplopteris elongataOccasional
Vittaria scolopendrinaUncommon

The ferniest places in the world

This is a table based on the work of Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; last update Dec. 8, 2020. – www.worldplants.de
The regions and the fern count (including endemics) come from his website. The area information (km2) comes from a variety of sources
The table is sorted by default by the largest value for ferns/km2 but you can resort the table by clicking on any column header

Country Ferns & Lycophytes EndemicsSize (km2)ferns/km2
Saba560134.3076923
Lord Howe Isl.6020154.1237113
Annobon Isl.472172.7647059
Isla del Coco (Cocos Isl.)5717242.4234694
Gibraltar11061.8333333
Kazan-Retto (Volcano Isl., Iwo-jima)552331.6897081
St. Eustatius320211.5238095
Norfolk Isl. (incl. Philip Isl.)476351.3583815
Montserrat11911021.1666667
Kermadec Isl.394341.1607143
Antipodes Isl.221211.0476190
Tokelau Isl. (incl. Swains Isl.)90100.9000000
Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Isl.)718790.8943192
Isla Malpelo1010.8333333
American Samoa15201990.7638191
Ilha da Trindade109140.7407407
Islas Selvagens (Salvajes Isl.)2030.7326007
Rotuma Isl.330470.7021277
Austral Isl. (Tubuai Isl., incl. Rapa Isl.)102201520.6710526
Principe Isl.7821360.5735294
St. Kitts & Nevis13122610.5019157
Juan Fernandez Isl.48211000.4819277
Grenada15413440.4476744
St. Vincent and the Grenadines16903890.4344473
Pitcairn Isl. (incl. Oeno Atoll)204470.4255319
St. Maarten (St. Martin)140340.4117647
St. Barthelemy (St. Barts)90250.3600000
Bermuda194540.3518519
Cook Isl. (incl. Rarotonga Isl.)6762370.2830587
Palau Isl. (Republic of Palau, Western Carolines)122124590.2657952
Dominica19617510.2609854
Rodrigues Isl.2741080.2500000
Singapore17107100.2408451
St. Helena29141220.2382909
Tuvalu (Ellice Isl.)60260.2307692
Henderson Isl. (incl. Ducie Atoll)80370.2144772
Wallis & Futuna3001420.2106742
Federal States of Micronesia (Central and Eastern Carolines: Truk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae)143137020.2037037
Christmas Isl. (Austr.)2721350.2000000
Ile Amsterdam & St. Paul Isl.111550.2000000
South China Sea Isl.30150.2000000
Martinique22421,1280.1985816
St. Lucia12116160.1964286
Tristan da Cunha (incl. Gough Island, Nightingale Isl., Inaccessible Island)40142070.1932367
Seychelles85124520.1880531
Campbell Isl.2001130.1774623
Guadeloupe (incl. Marie Galante, La Désirade, Les Saintes)28761,6280.1762899
Banaba (Ocean Isl., Kiribati p. p.)1060.1666667
St. Pierre & Miquelon4002420.1652893
Ascension Isl.155910.1648352
Virgin Islands (U.S. Virgin Islands & British Virgin Islands)5403460.1558891
Sao Tomé14789640.1524896
Santa Cruz Isl. (Vanikoro, etc.)3822500.1520000
Nauru30210.1428571
Gambier Isl. (incl. Mangareva Isl.)90690.1304537
Society Isl. (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Huahine, Bora Bora, Makatea, etc.)197521,5900.1238994
Tonga9137470.1218206
Northern Marianas5814770.1215933
San Andres y Providencia60530.1142857
Guam6005490.1092896
Marquesas Isl.114331,0490.1086749
Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo)21322,0170.1056024
Chatham Isl.10119660.1045549
Niue Isl.2702620.1032505
La Reunion248192,5120.0987261
Mauritius (incl. Tromelin Isl.)201142,0400.0985294
Auckland Isl.4204430.0949153
Comores (incl. Mayotte)16391,8620.0875403
Malta2603160.0822785
[Western] Samoa226202,8420.0795215
Easter Island (Rapa Nui)1351640.0794621
Madeira6068010.0749064
Antigua and Barbuda (incl. Redonda Isl.)3304420.0746606
Cayman Isl.1902590.0733591
Barbados3004300.0697674
Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor, Alor, Wetar) [incl. East Timor]365125,4400.0670956
Ryukyu Isl. (Nansei Shoto) (incl. Osumi Isl., Tokara Isl., Amami Isl., Okinawa Isl., Daito Isl., Sakishima Isl.)311124,6420.0669970
Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives)20330.0613121
Trinidad & Tobago291105,1300.0567251
Marshall Isl.1001810.0551572
Nicobar Isl.9421,8410.0510592
Jamaica5566210,9910.0505868
Macquarie Isl.601280.0468750
British Channel Isl.801850.0432432
Puerto Rico (incl. Mona Isl., Desecheo Isl., Culebra Isl., Vieques Isl.)360228,8700.0405862
Agalega Isl.10250.0400000
Andorra1814680.0384615
Iles Glorieuses (Iles Eparses p. p.)501650.0303030
Costa Rica (except Isla del Coco)1,14310151,1000.0223679
Azores5152,3460.0217391
Marion & Prince Edward Isl.713350.0208955
Taiwan (incl. Lan Yu Isl.)7388536,1930.0203907
Iles Crozet703520.0198864
Liechtenstein301600.0187500
El Salvador371321,0410.0176322
Fiji3085518,2720.0168564
Revillagigedo Isl. (incl. Socorro Isl.)1711,0640.0159827
Palawan (incl. Busuanga, Culion)232514,6500.0158362
Curacao704440.0157658
Solomon Isl. (incl. Bougainville, excl. Santa Cruz Isl.)4443428,4000.0156338
Vanuatu1901512,1890.0155878
New Caledonia (incl. Ile des Pins, Loyalty Isl., Ile Art)28211518,5750.0151817
Galapagos Isl.118118,0100.0147316
Faeroe Isl.2001,3990.0142959
Gilbert Islands (Kiribati p. p.)402810.0142298
Bhutan534138,3940.0139084
Maldives403000.0133333
Panama9474475,4170.0125569
Andaman Isl.7916,4080.0123283
Belize261222,9660.0113646
Bonaire302940.0102041
Tuamotu Arch. (excl. Gambier Isl.)908850.0101695
Moluccas [Maluku] (Tanimbar, Kei, Aru, Banda, Ambon, Seram, Buru, Obi, Bacan, Halmaheira, Ternate, Tidore, Morotai, Talaud, Sulu Arch.)6769174,5050.0090732
Cape Verde Isl.3514,0330.0086784
Jan Mayen Isl.303770.0079576
Line Isl. (Kiribati p. p., incl. Christmas Isl. = Kiritimati)405030.0079475
Hispaniola (Dominican Republic & Haiti)5906476,1920.0077436
Corsica6708,7220.0076817
Turks & Caicos Isl.709480.0073840
Soqotra (incl. Abd-al-Kuri Isl., Samha Isl.)2703,7960.0071128
Canary Isl.5347,4930.0070733
Rwanda175326,3380.0066444
Guatemala7184108,8890.0065939
Burundi181227,8340.0065028
Eswatini [Swaziland]107117,3640.0061622
Baleares3004,9920.0060096
Hawaii (incl. Johnston Atoll, Midway Isl.)16912028,3110.0059694
Honduras6464112,4920.0057426
Ecuador1,476182276,8410.0053316
Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Admirality Isl., Manus Isl., Umboi, etc.)2591649,7000.0052113
peninsular Malaysia (incl. Langkawi Isl.)68746132,2650.0051941
Sri Lanka3323765,6100.0050602
Cuba55091109,8840.0050053
Isla Guadalupe801,6280.0049140
Equatorial Guinea (mainland [Rio Muni], excluding islands)136128,0510.0048483
Nicaragua6083130,3730.0046635
Montenegro62013,8120.0044889
Sulawesi (Celebes) (incl. Selayar, Banggai, Sangihe, Kabaena)77886174,6000.0044559
Java (incl. Madura Isl., Kangean Arch., Bawean)54443128,2970.0042402
Crete3518,3360.0041987
French Guiana3301283,5340.0039505
Bahrain307650.0039216
Nepal5584147,1810.0037913
Slovenia68020,2730.0033542
Brunei1845,7650.0031223
Lebanon32110,4520.0030616
Philippines (excl. Palawan, Sulu Arch.)1,017245342,3530.0029706
Bahamas41113,9430.0029405
Lesotho87030,3550.0028661
South Korea (incl. Cheju Do Isl.)2749100,2100.0027343
Vietnam85160331,2120.0025694
Cyprus2309,2510.0024862
Guyana (British Guyana)52526214,9690.0024422
Luxembourg602,5860.0023202
Northern Macedonia57125,7130.0022168
South Georgia Isl.803,9030.0020497
Sardinia48024,0900.0019925
Malawi2351118,4840.0019834
Surinam3214163,8210.0019595
Sierra Leone138171,7400.0019236
Sicily (incl. Isole Pelagie)49025,7110.0019058
Albania54028,7480.0018784
Mozambique Channel Isl. (Iles Eparses p. p., incl. Ile Europa, Juan de Nova Isl.)301,6000.0018750
Switzerland77041,2840.0018651
Belgium55030,5280.0018016
Japan (incl. Izu Isl., Yakushima Isl., excl. Ryukyu Isl. and Bonin Isl.)672105377,9300.0017781
Falkland Isl.21112,1730.0017251
Liberia1923111,3690.0017240
New Guinea (Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea, incl. d'Entrecasteaux Isl., Goodenough Isl., Louisiade Arch., Rennell, Yapen, Biak, Waigeu Islands etc.)1,287599785,7530.0016379
Sumatera (incl. Mentawai, Enggano, Nias, Simeulue, Lingga Arch., Krakatau, Bangka, Belitung, Batu)734135473,4810.0015502
Colombia1,6971891,141,7480.0014863
Armenia44029,7430.0014793
Bangladesh2173147,5700.0014705
Thailand73629513,1200.0014344
Croatia80156,5940.0014136
Eastern Aegean Islands (Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodos, Kos, Symi, Samos, Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Limnos etc.)33023,7890.0013872
Slovakia68049,0370.0013867
Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita)1,236138916,4450.0013487
Crimea36027,0000.0013333
Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan, incl. Natuna Isl., Riouw Arch., excl. Brunei)989264743,3300.0013305
Madagascar669327587,0410.0011396
Gambia12010,6890.0011226
Uganda2700241,5500.0011178
Iles Kerguélen807,2150.0011088
Myanmar7449676,5780.0010997
Denmark47043,0940.0010906
Gruziya [Georgia - Caucasus] (incl. Abkhazia, Adzharia)76069,7000.0010904
Cambodia1960181,0350.0010827
Laos2553236,8000.0010769
Bolivia1,1801391,098,5810.0010741
Estonia48045,2270.0010613
European Turkey25023,7640.0010520
Netherlands44041,8500.0010514
Togo59056,7850.0010390
Bosnia & Hercegovina53051,2090.0010350
Peru1,2481441,285,2160.0009710
Czech Republic71078,8650.0009003
Austria75083,8710.0008942
Israel + Palestine18020,7700.0008666
North Korea1031120,5380.0008545
Ireland (incl. Northern Ireland)58070,2730.0008254
New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl., Three Kings Isl., Snares Isl., excl. remote islands)19031270,4670.0007025
Zimbabwe2722390,7570.0006961
Guinea [Conakry]1684245,8570.0006833
Latvia44064,5590.0006815
Portugal (excl. Azores, Madeira)61092,0900.0006624
Ghana1582238,5330.0006624
Serbia58088,3610.0006564
Azerbaijan (incl. Talysh, incl. Nachichevan)56186,6000.0006467
Gabon1732267,6680.0006463
Congo [Brazzaville]2113342,0000.0006170
Guinea-Bissau22036,1250.0006090
Hungary56093,0280.0006020
Paraguay2424406,7520.0005950
Cameroon2766475,4420.0005805
Uruguay1031181,0340.0005690
Lithuania37065,3000.0005666
Djibouti13023,2000.0005603
Mexico1,0421941,964,3750.0005304
Bulgaria580110,8790.0005231
Greece (incl. Kikladhes, excl. Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos and E-Aegaean)671131,9900.0005076
Ivory Coast1571322,4630.0004869
Kenya2794580,3670.0004807
Benin500112,6220.0004440
Tanzania (incl. Pemba Isl., Zanzibar)40123945,0870.0004243
Tibet [Xizang]488131,228,0000.0003974
Italy (incl. Elba Isl., Capri Isl.)1183301,3360.0003916
Iceland361103,0000.0003495
Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Isle of Man, Orkney Isl., Shetland Isl., but excl. Channel Isl. and Northern Ireland)791242,9000.0003252
India (incl. Assam, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Chumbi, Jammu & Kashmir, excl. Andaman and Nicobar Isl., excl. Lakshadweep Isl.)1,029533,287,5900.0003130
Mozambique2250801,5900.0002807
Romania610238,3910.0002559
Tunisia390163,6100.0002384
Eritrea281117,6000.0002381
Germany840357,1140.0002352
Zambia1761752,6120.0002339
Senegal440196,7220.0002237
South Africa270321,221,0370.0002211
Norway710323,8020.0002193
France (mainland, excl. Corsica)1171551,6950.0002121
Poland660312,6790.0002111
Spain (excl. Baleares)1062505,9920.0002095
Nigeria1921923,7680.0002078
Belarus430207,6000.0002071
Tajikistan281143,1000.0001957
China (incl. Hongkong, Macao and Hainan; excl. Tibet, Taiwan and South China Sea Isl.)1,8885939,706,9610.0001945
Central African Republic1151622,9840.0001846
Finland570338,4240.0001684
Angola (excl. Cabinda)20311,246,7000.0001628
Northern Caucasus (incl. Chechnya, Daghestan, etc.)710440,0000.0001614
Ethiopia17851,104,3000.0001612
Chile (excl. Juan Fdz. Isl.)12016756,1020.0001587
Brazil1,3494888,515,7670.0001584
Pakistan1390881,9120.0001576
Morocco641446,5500.0001433
D.R. Congo (Zaire)332122,344,8580.0001416
Sweden630450,2950.0001399
Cabinda107,2900.0001372
Argentina370192,780,4000.0001331
Kyrgyzstan (Kirgisia)260199,9510.0001300
Turkey (excl. European Turkey)986783,5620.0001251
Sinai peninsula7060,0000.0001167
Svalbard (incl. Bjornoya)6061,0220.0000983
Ukraine (excl. Crimea)580603,5000.0000961
Sudan17001,886,0680.0000901
Moldova (incl. Transnistria)3033,8460.0000886
Syria160185,1800.0000864
Qatar1011,5860.0000863
Burkina Faso231272,9670.0000843
Botswana490582,0000.0000842
Yemen (excl. Soqotra)420527,9680.0000796
Afghanistan480652,2300.0000736
Namibia (incl. Caprivi Strip)601825,6150.0000727
Somalia390637,6570.0000612
Australia (incl. Tasmania, excl. other islands)4541537,692,0240.0000590
Oman180309,5000.0000582
Kuwait1017,8180.0000561
Jordania5089,3420.0000560
Alaska (incl. Aleutes)8511,718,0000.0000495
USA (Lower 48 States)436749,372,6100.0000465
Uzbekistan190447,4000.0000425
Iraq180438,3170.0000411
Turkmenistan190488,1000.0000389
Iran5911,648,1950.0000358
Mongolia5001,564,1100.0000320
Mali3801,240,1920.0000306
Chad3601,284,0000.0000280
United Arab Emirates (incl. Dubai, Abu Dhabi)2083,6000.0000239
Algeria5302,381,7410.0000223
Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Amur, Ussuri, Okhotsk, Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Commander Isl., Primorye, Khabarovsk, Magadan)13766,200,0000.0000221
Kazakhstan5802,724,9000.0000213
European Russia (excl. Caucasus, incl. Kaliningrad region, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya)7403,995,2000.0000185
Canada17219,984,6700.0000172
Greenland3702,166,0860.0000171
Chagos Arch. (Diego Garcia)81544,0000.0000147
Saudi Arabia2602,149,6900.0000121
Egypt (excl. Sinai peninsula)1201,002,4500.0000120
Mauritania1101,030,7000.0000107
Niger1201,267,0000.0000095
Libya1601,759,5400.0000091
Siberia (incl. Altay, Sayan, Tuva, Krasnoyarsk, Buryatia, Chita, Transbaicalia, Yakutia, Irkutsk, NE-Siberia)98313,100,0000.0000075
Western Sahara10266,0000.0000038
South Sudan10619,7450.0000016

Focus Stacking

I have a Sony α6100 camera which I can control from my PC using Sony’s remote viewer software
With this software I can “tether” the camera and adjust the focus very accurately
This is my “rig”

It comprises a
single monitor stand
Pro 4 Way Macro Focusing Focus Rail Slider for Close-up Shooting with a DSLR Camera
Ring flash light
(I have added links to similar but not necessarily the same items as I bought)
(The ring light was designed to work on batteries but I found I could hard wire it to the mains via a USB power supply)
With this set up I can control the exact position of the camera in a stable situation

I take a series of pictures, changing the focus very slightly for each picture
This change of focus is done using Sony’s software on the PC and I do not have to touch the camera itself
Here is an example of the series:

I then combine these images using Picolay
This software can combine all theses images and produces this image, which is a combination of all the in-focus bits of the previous 22 images:

This image when looked at full pixel size will produce a picture like this:

and then if I sharpen the image using the Nik Collection plugin for Photoshop elements

The end result of this is not to get a greater magnification than the camera lense can achieve but to get a greater depth of focus than the camera can achieve on its own

Ferns of Singapore

Singapore is a small island (280 square miles)
For the British, it is about half as big again as the Isle of Wight

It is a popular holiday and stop-over destination
Here is a map showing the fern locations of Singapore taken from the data published in The urban pteridophyte flora of Singapore by Benito C. Tan, Angie Ng, Angie Ng-Chua L.S., Anne Chong, Cheryl Lao, Cheryl Lao,Machida Tan-Takako, Ngiam Shih-Tung, Aries Tay & Yap Von Bing

The locations are shown (by default) grouped by the numbers of ferns in each location
The highest number of ferns is in the Central Catchment with 16
You can also see the ferns in each of the locations described in the paper by chosing “Fern locations” in the legend
Clicking on any location will bring up the list of ferns in that location