Category Archives: Uncategorized

Snow and the Ferns at Harlow Carr

There have been a few ferns that have stuck out at Harlow Carr recently amidst all the snow and freezing temperatures we have had. And even one that gives a more exotic feel in cold days, that being the Blechnum chilense! Also Woodwardia fimbriata has remained a great wintergreen addition in areas without much above ground. These have both been great tough and beautiful ferns so far along the streamside this winter!

https://www.rhs.org.uk/gardens/harlow-carr

Blechnum in the Snow
Dense foliage of Blechnum in freezing temperatures
Woodwardia in the snow

 

Tree Ferns In the Snow!

Tree Ferns at Harlow Carr trying to stay warm in the snow
Tree Fern in the winter time

The Tree ferns at Harlow Carr are all wrapped up for winter, but I couldn’t help appreciate them with the snow on them! We always look forward to seeing their new fronds emerge in summer and this year after this winter cold it will be even more exciting!

https://www.rhs.org.uk/gardens/harlow-carr

Buriton January 2021

Today I went for my first serious walk in months around Buriton
This particular place is very good for Asplenium scolopendrium, which looks at its most spectacular when all the other vegetation around it has died down

Also in this area is one patch of Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. This fern is common growing in walls in Hampshire but is rare growing in the ground. It also looks its best in winter

Sowing Spores – the Munyard method

This post is about how I sow the spores I have received from the BPS Spore Exchange using a method decribed to me by Steve Munyard
To this end I bought 50 small square pots from ebay . They are rugged and microwave proof

I fill 20 of these with cheap compost from Wilkinsons and place them in a large propagator
I fill the propagator with water to about 1cm
I replace the lid and and leave for 24 hours for the compost to become fully wet

After 24 hours I put each pot singly into my (dirty) microwave and cook on full power for 2 minutes
I take the pot out and cover with cardboard and replace in the propagator
Again I replace the lid and leave for 24 hours to cool down

I sort out my spores and create labels using the Dymo label printer

The spore packets that arrive from the BPS are beautifully wrapped in aluminium foil
I unpack them carefully using a scalpel

Eventually you will find the spores inside

I keep the propagator in my conservatory and I take one pot, one at time, into the kitchen where I unwrap a spore package and place it carefully into the pot and then replace the cardboard and replace it in the propagator

Eventually the propgator has all 20 pots and the lid is replaced

Both the cardboard and the aluminium can be removed in 24-48 hours

Steve tells me that the only additional thing he does is to have artificial LED light on top of the propagator as this seems to speed things up. The lights are on for 10 to 12 hours a day
My propogator is in my conservatory which has quite a lot of light

Gametophytes and Sporophytes

This is a diagramatic representation of a fern gametophyte

This is a gametophyte of Asplenium ceterach

There are 3 young sporophytes growing on gametophytes

This is a gametophyte that has failed to germinate, it has grown quite large

Where to find Ferns

This map is a detail map of the Carribean where there are lots of small islands with lots of ferns

The following table lists the countries sorted by which have the largest ratio of fern species per Km2
This table may be a bit misleading in that the country with the largest number of ferns, China (1888), comes in at position 126
However it might come in useful if you wanted to spend a week looking for ferns
Some of the countries have links to extra information about the ferns of the area
This list only contains data for sovereign countries and thus does not have data for semi-autonomous areas such as Macaronesia

PositionCountryFern CountLand Area (Km2)Ferns/km2
1St. Kitts & Nevis1312600.503846
2Grenada1543400.452941
3Singapore1717000.244285
4St. Lucia1216100.198360
5Seychelles854600.184782
6Sao Tomé1479600.153125
7Tonga917200.126388
8Mauritius201 2,030 0.099014
9Malta263200.081250
10Antigua and Barbuda334400.075000
11Barbados304300.069767
12Trinidad & Tobago291 5,130 0.056725
13Jamaica556 10,830 0.051338
14Andorra184700.038297
15Costa Rica1143 51,060 0.022385
16Haiti590 27,560 0.021407
17Taiwan738 36,193 0.020390
18El Salvador371 20,720 0.017905
19Fiji308 18,270 0.016858
20Solomon Isl.444 27,990 0.015862
21Vanuatu190 12,190 0.015586
22Bhutan534 38,117 0.014009
23Panama947 74,340 0.012738
24Belize261 22,810 0.011442
25Rwanda175 24,670 0.007093
26Burundi181 25,680 0.007048
27Guatemala718 107,160 0.006700
28Eswatini107 17,200 0.006220
29Ecuador1476 248,360 0.005942
30Honduras646 111,890 0.005773
31Sri Lanka332 62,710 0.005294
32Cuba550 106,440 0.005167
33Nicaragua608 120,340 0.005052
34Equatorial Guinea136 28,050 0.004848
35Montenegro62 13,450 0.004609
36Bahamas41 10,010 0.004095
37Dominican Republic196 48,320 0.004056
38Nepal558 143,350 0.003892
39Brunei18 5,270 0.003415
40Philippines1017 298,170 0.003410
41Slovenia68 20,140 0.003376
42Lebanon32 10,230 0.003128
43Lesotho87 30,360 0.002865
44Papua New Guinea1287 452,860 0.002841
45South Korea274 97,230 0.002818
46Vietnam851 310,070 0.002744
47Guyana525 196,850 0.002667
48Malawi235 94,280 0.002492
49Cyprus23 9,240 0.002489
50Northern Macedonia57 25,220 0.002260
51Malaysia687 328,550 0.002091
52Suriname321 156,000 0.002057
53Liberia192 96,320 0.001993
54Albania54 27,400 0.001970
55Switzerland77 39,516 0.001948
56Sierra Leone138 72,180 0.001911
57Japan672 364,555 0.001843
58Belgium55 30,280 0.001816
59Bangladesh217 130,170 0.001667
60Armenia44 28,470 0.001545
61Colombia1697 1,109,500 0.001529
62Thailand736 510,890 0.001440
63Croatia80 55,960 0.001429
64Slovakia68 48,088 0.001414
65Venezuela1236 882,050 0.001401
66Uganda270 199,810 0.001351
67Netherlands44 33,720 0.001304
68Gambia12 10,120 0.001185
69Madagascar669 581,795 0.001149
70Myanmar744 653,290 0.001138
71Estonia48 42,390 0.001132
72Cambodia196 176,520 0.001110
73Denmark47 42,430 0.001107
74Laos255 230,800 0.001104
75Bolivia1180 1,083,300 0.001089
76Togo59 54,390 0.001084
77Bosnia & Hercegovina53 51,000 0.001039
78Peru1248 1,280,000 0.000975
79DR Congo332 341,500 0.000972
80Czech Republic71 77,240 0.000919
81Austria75 82,409 0.000910
82North Korea103 120,410 0.000855
83Ireland58 68,890 0.000841
84Guinea-Bissau22 28,120 0.000782
85New Zealand190 263,310 0.000721
86Latvia44 62,200 0.000707
87Zimbabwe272 386,850 0.000703
88Ghana158 227,540 0.000694
89Guinea168 245,720 0.000683
90Azerbaijan56 82,658 0.000677
91Gabon173 257,670 0.000671
92Portugal61 91,590 0.000666
93Serbia58 87,460 0.000663
94Hungary56 90,530 0.000618
95Congo211 341,500 0.000617
96Paraguay242 397,300 0.000609
97Lithuania37 62,674 0.000590
98Uruguay103 175,020 0.000588
99Cameroon276 472,710 0.000583
100Djibouti13 23,180 0.000560
101Indonesia989 1,811,570 0.000545
102Mexico1042 1,943,950 0.000536
103Bulgaria58 108,560 0.000534
104Greece67 128,900 0.000519
105Cote d Ivoire157 318,000 0.000493
106Kenya279 569,140 0.000490
107Tanzania401 885,800 0.000452
108Benin50 112,760 0.000443
109Italy118 294,140 0.000401
110Iceland36 100,250 0.000359
111India1029 2,973,190 0.000346
112United Kingdom79 241,930 0.000326
113Mozambique225 786,380 0.000286
114Eritrea28 101,000 0.000277
115Romania61 230,170 0.000265
116Tunisia39 155,360 0.000251
117Germany84 348,560 0.000240
118Zambia176 743,390 0.000236
119Senegal44 192,530 0.000228
120South Africa270 1,213,090 0.000222
121Poland66 306,230 0.000215
122France117 547,557 0.000213
123Spain106 498,800 0.000212
124Belarus43 202,910 0.000211
125Nigeria192 910,770 0.000210
126China1888 9,388,211 0.000201
127Tajikistan28 139,960 0.000200
128Norway71 365,268 0.000194
129Finland57 303,890 0.000187
130Central African Republic115 622,980 0.000184
131Pakistan139 770,880 0.000180
132Ethiopia178 1,000,000 0.000178
133Angola203 1,246,700 0.000162
134Brazil1349 8,358,140 0.000161
135Chile120 743,532 0.000161
136Sweden63 410,340 0.000153
137Morocco64 446,300 0.000143
138Kyrgyzstan26 191,800 0.000135
139Argentina370 2,736,690 0.000135
140Turkey98 769,630 0.000127
141Ukraine58 579,320 0.000100
142Sudan170 1,765,048 0.000096
143Syria16 183,630 0.000087
144Botswana49 566,730 0.000086
145Burkina Faso23 273,600 0.000084
146Yemen42 527,970 0.000079
147Afghanistan48 652,860 0.000073
148Namibia60 823,290 0.000072
149Somalia39 627,340 0.000062
150Australia454 7,682,300 0.000059
151Oman18 309,500 0.000058
152United States436 9,147,420 0.000047
153Uzbekistan19 425,400 0.000044
154Iraq18 434,320 0.000041
155Turkmenistan19 469,930 0.000040
156Iran59 1,628,550 0.000036
157Mongolia50 1,553,560 0.000032
158Mali38 1,220,190 0.000031
159Chad36 1,259,200 0.000028
160Algeria53 2,381,740 0.000022
161Kazakhstan58 2,699,700 0.000021
162Canada172 9,093,510 0.000018
163Saudi Arabia26 2,149,690 0.000012
164Egypt12 995,450 0.000012
165Mauritania11 1,030,700 0.000010
166Niger12 1,266,700 0.000009
167Libya16 1,759,540 0.000009
168Russia74 16,376,870 0.000004

Fern count numbers taken from Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; last update Dec. 8, 2020. – www.worldplants.de

Country size data take from worldometers.info

Where do Ferns Live?

The percentage value represents the number of ferns (and lycophytes) in the country divided by the number of ferns in the world, 12,768

The Köppen classification depends on average monthly values of temperature and precipitation
The most commonly used form of the Köppen classification has five primary types labeled A to E
The primary types are A, tropical; B, dry; C, mild mid-latitude; D, cold mid-latitude; and E, polar
The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest, monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical, humid continental, oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, polar ice cap, and desert

This table shows the fern count for all the countries that have at least 1% of the total fern count

CountryCount%
China 188814.78
Colombia169713.29
Ecuador147611.56
Brazil134910.56
New Guinea 128710.07
Peru12489.77
Venezuela 12369.68
Bolivia11809.24
Costa Rica 11438.95
Mexico10428.16
India 10298.05
Philippines 10177.96
Borneo 9897.74
Panama9477.41
Vietnam8516.66
Sulawesi 7786.09
Myanmar7445.82
Taiwan 7385.78
Thailand7365.76
Sumatera 7345.74
Guatemala7185.62
peninsular Malaysia 6875.38
Moluccas [Maluku] 6765.29
Japan 6725.26
Madagascar6695.23
Honduras6465.05
Nicaragua6084.76
Hispaniola 5904.62
Nepal5584.37
Jamaica5564.35
Cuba5504.3
Jawa 5444.26
Bhutan5344.18
Guyana 5254.11
Tibet [Xizang]4883.82
Australia 4543.55
Solomon Isl. 4443.47
USA 4363.41
Tanzania 4013.14
El Salvador3712.9
Argentina3702.89
Lesser Sunda Isl. 3652.85
Puerto Rico 3602.81
D.R. Congo 3322.6
Sri Lanka3322.6
French Guiana3302.58
Surinam3212.51
Ryukyu Isl. 3112.43
Fiji3082.41
Trinidad & Tobago2912.27
Guadeloupe 2872.24
New Caledonia 2822.2
Kenya2792.18
Cameroon2762.16
South Korea 2742.14
Zimbabwe2722.13
Uganda2702.11
South Africa2702.11
Belize2612.04
Bismarck Arch. 2592.02
Laos2551.99
La Reunion2481.94
Paraguay2421.89
Malawi2351.84
Palawan 2321.81
[Western] Samoa2261.77
Mozambique2251.76
Martinique2241.75
Bangladesh2171.69
Bioko Isl. 2131.66
Congo [Brazzaville]2111.65
Angola 2031.58
Mauritius 2011.57
Society Isl. 1971.54
Cambodia1961.53
Dominica1961.53
Liberia1921.5
Nigeria1921.5
New Zealand 1901.48
Vanuatu1901.48
Burundi1811.41
Ethiopia1781.39
Zambia1761.37
Rwanda1751.37
Gabon1731.35
Canada1721.34
Singapore1711.33
Sudan1701.33
Hawaii 1691.32
St. Vincent and the Grenadines1691.32
Guinea [Conakry]1681.31
Comores 1631.27
Ghana1581.23
Ivory Coast1571.22
Grenada1541.2
American Samoa1521.19
São Tomé1471.15
Federal States of Micronesia 1431.11
Pakistan1391.08
Sierra Leone1381.08
Russian Far East 1371.07
Equatorial Guinea 1361.06
St. Kitts & Nevis1311.02

Data from Hassler, Michael (2004 – 2020): World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. Version 11.1; last update Dec. 8, 2020. – www.worldplants.de

Blechnum appendiculatum

This is Blechnum appendiculatum putting up new fronds in December in the UK
It lives in my unheated polytunnel where it gets a measure of protection which it seems to need
It is growing with Aspidistra elatior which almost hardy but appreciates a bit of protection

Cheilanthes name changes

These name changes have been extracted from the article Toward a monophyletic Cheilanthes: The resurrection and recircumscription of Myriopteris (Pteridaceae) by Amanda Lee Grusz and Michael Dennis Windham

New NamePrevious name
Myriopteris aemulaCheilanthes aemula
Myriopteris alabamensisPteris alabamensis
Myriopteris allosuroidesCheilanthes allosuroides
Myriopteris aureaPteris aurea
Myriopteris chipinquensisCheilanthes chipinquensis
Myriopteris cinnamomeaNotholaena cinnamomea
Myriopteris clevelandiiCheilanthes clevelandii
Myriopteris cooperaeCheilanthes cooperae
Myriopteris covilleiCheilanthes covillei
Myriopteris cucullansCheilanthes cucullans
Myriopteris fendleriCheilanthes fendleri
Myriopteris × fibrillosaCheilanthes lanuginosa var. fibrillosa
Myriopteris fimbriataCheilanthes microphylla var. fimbriata
Myriopteris gracilisCheilanthes gracilis
Myriopteris gracillimaCheilanthes gracillima
Myriopteris intertextaCheilanthes covillei subsp. intertexta
Myriopteris jamaicensisCheilanthes jamaicensis
Myriopteris lanosaNephrodium lanosum
Myriopteris lendigeraPteris lendigera
Myriopteris lindheimeriCheilanthes lindheimeri
Myriopteris longipilaCheilanthes longipila
Myriopteris longipila subsp. brevipilaCheilanthes longipila var. brevipila
Myriopteris marsupianthesCheilanthes marsupianthes
Myriopteris maxonianaCheilanthes maxoniana
Myriopteris mexicanaCheilanthes mexicana
Myriopteris mickeliiCheilanthes mickelii
Myriopteris microphyllaAdiantum microphyllum
Myriopteris moritzianaCheilanthes moritziana
Myriopteris myriophyllaCheilanthes myriophylla
Myriopteris newberryiNotholaena newberryi
Myriopteris notholaenoidesPteris notholaenoides
Myriopteris × parishiiCheilanthes parishii
Myriopteris parryiNotholaena parryi
Myriopteris peninsularisCheilanthes peninsularis
Myriopteris peninsularis subsp. insularisCheilanthes peninsularis var. insularis
Myriopteris pringleiCheilanthes pringlei
Myriopteris pringlei subsp. moncloviensisCheilanthes moncloviensis
Myriopteris rawsoniCheilanthes rawsonii
Myriopteris rufaCheilanthes eatonii
Myriopteris scabraPellaea scabra
Myriopteris tomentosaCheilanthes tomentosa
Myriopteris viscidaCheilanthes viscida
Myriopteris windhamiiCheilanthes villosa
Myriopteris wootoniiCheilanthes wootonii
Myriopteris wrightiiCheilanthes wrightii
Myriopteris yatskievychianaCheilanthes yatskievychiana
Myriopteris yavapensisCheilanthes yavapensis